10.1.7. Starter

Launch of the engine is carried out by ST230-B4 starter * with the electromagnetic traction relay. The starter is established on the left side of the engine and fastens to a coupling case.

* The starter 422.3708 can be installed on parts of cars (the device, service and repair — see section 8.3).

Technical characteristics of a starter
Rated voltage, In..... 12
Number of teeths of a gear wheel of the drive of a starter..... 9
Gear wheel module..... 2,5
Rated power (with the battery with a capacity of 55 And · w), kW..... 1,5
The idling mode at a voltage of 12 V:
the consumed current, And, no more..... 85
frequency of rotation of a shaft, mines-1, not less..... 4000
The mode of full braking at a starter power supply from the 12-volt battery with a capacity of 60 And · ч:
the consumed current, And, no more..... 550
torque, Nanometer (kgf · l), not less..... 20,0 (2,0)
Tension of inclusion of the main contacts of the traction relay when laying between a gear wheel
and a persistent ring of 16,5 mm, In, no more..... 8,0
Number of poles..... 4
Excitement windings:      
Four coils dishwasher wire сеч. 1,5x5,6 mm on 8,5 rounds everyone
Brushes:       
     Mednografitnye, MGSO brands, 4 pieces, size of 8,8x19,2X14 mm
Anchor winding:      
      Wire of the dishwasher with a section of 2,26x3,53 mm,
 number of conductors
        in section — 1, a step
        on grooves 1 — 8, step
        on a collector 1 — 15
Effort of springs, N (kgf)..... 8,5 — 14,0 (0,85 — 1,4)
Traction relay:
the involving winding..... PEV-2 wire, diameter is 1,18 — 1,36 mm, 180 rounds, resistance of 0,35 — 0,36 Ohms
the holding winding..... PEV-2 wire, diameter is 0,75 — 0,89 mm, 180 rounds, resistance of 1,06 — 1,14 Ohms
       

Fig. 9.18. Starter: 1 — the protection cover; 2 — sealing laying; 3 — a brush; 4 — a cover from a collector; 5 — an excitement winding; 6 — the case; 7 — adjusting washers; 8 — the collector; 9 — an anchor; 10 — the intermediate bearing; 11 — a lever axis; 12 — covers from the drive; 13 — a persistent washer; 14 — a castle ring; 15 — a persistent ring; 16 — the drive with the coupling of a free wheeling; 17 — a buffer spring; 18 — the lever; 19 — the plug layers; 20 — an anchor of the traction relay; 21 — a returnable spring; 22 — the coupling screw; 23 — a brush spring; 24 — the traction relay; 25 — a contact disk; 26 — a cover of the traction relay




Starter — the quadripolar four-brush electric motor of a direct current. The shaft of a starter rotates clockwise (if to take a detached view the starter drive). The device of a starter and the electromagnetic relay is shown in fig. 9.18.
At turn of a key of the switch of ignition in the direction of an hour hand the provision of start-up joins an electric chain of the additional relay of a starter 711.3747 — 02 through which contacts food moves from the rechargeable battery in the traction relay (see the scheme of electric equipment of the car). The anchor of the traction relay under the influence of the electromagnetic field of two windings of the relay is involved and by means of the lever enters a gear wheel into gearing and at the end of the course includes an electric chain of a starter, having at the same time disconnected the involving relay winding.
After launch of the engine it is necessary to release an ignition switch key immediately. At the same time the chain of the additional relay of a starter will be opened and the traction relay will be switched off under the influence of a returnable spring.
Maintenance of a starter
At maintenance it is necessary to check a condition of clips, without allowing their pollution and weakening of fastening.
The starter consumes big current therefore even insignificant transitional resistance in a chain of a starter lead to big power failure and deceleration of power of a starter.
Pay special attention to a condition of a collector and brushes. Make sure that the brush is not jammed in brush holders. Height of brushes has to be not less than 5 mm. The effort of a spring has to be within 8,5 — 14 N (0,85 — 1,4 kgfs).
In case of pollution or an insignificant obgoraniye of the collector it is necessary to smooth out a small glass skin granularity 80 or 100. At an insignificant roughness of a collector and a vystupaniya of isolation between plates of the collector it is necessary to pierce on the lathe.
The burned slightly contacts of the electromagnetic relay of a starter should be smoothed out a glass skin or a flat velvet file to provide contact on all surface with a contact disk. If contact bolts in places of contact with a contact disk have big wear, turn them on 180 °.
Removal and dismantling of a starter
It is necessary for removal of a starter:
- to switch-off the accumulator battery;
- to disconnect wires from a starter;
- to turn the valve of the oil heater with a locking faucet on 90 ° forward;
- to pick up the phone of a rod oil indicator;
- to turn off nuts of fastening of a starter and to remove a starter.
Dismantling. The starter which is subject to repair needs to be sorted. Carefully to clear starter details of dirt and to check. The damaged and worn-out details have to be replaced by new. The starter needs to be sorted in the following order:
- to remove the protection cover (see fig. 9.18);
- to take out brushes from brush holders. Brushes and brush holders should be numbered that at assembly of a brush to establish on the places;
- to unscrew coupling screws 22 cases of a starter and to uncover 4 from a collector;
- to disconnect a wire from the traction relay;
- to remove the starter case 6;
- to remove drive lever axis 11;
- to take out an anchor together with the drive, at the same time to remove from an anchor shaft pin adjusting washers from the drive. To shift the persistent plug on an anchor shaft towards a gear wheel. To remove a spring ring under the persistent plug then to remove the persistent plug and the drive;
- to remove the traction relay 24; to uncover 26 relays; to remove a locking washer and a contact disk 25 from a rod;
- if necessary to unscrew in special adaptation screws крепленйя poles and to remove excitement windings.
Check of a condition of details and repair of a starter

Fig. 9.19. Check of coils of excitement of a starter on short circuit with the case




By means of a control lamp to be convinced of lack of short circuit of coils of excitement on the case. For this purpose it is necessary to connect the control lamp included in 220 V in a chain of alternating current to the case and a conclusion located on the case (fig. 9.19). If the lamp burns, means isolation of coils of excitement is damaged.

Fig. 9.20. Otvertyvaniye of screws of fastening of poles of a starter




In this case it is necessary to number poles of coils, on special adaptation to unscrew screws of fastening of poles (fig. 9.20) and to remove excitement windings. To repair the damaged places of isolation an insulating tape. After that to put poles and coils into place. To zakernit screws of poles.

Fig. 9.21. Check of the isolated starter brush holders on short circuit with the case




By means of a control lamp to be convinced of lack of short circuit of the isolated brush holders on the case (fig. 9.21). At short circuit it is necessary to replace insulating laying and the plug of rivets of the brush holder. Rocking of brush holders is not allowed. Brushes in brush holders have to move freely, without jammings. To replace the cover plug from a collector in case of its wear. Diameter of an opening of the new plug after a press fitting and development has to be 14+0,035mm with purity of processing of Ra = 2,5. The brushes which are worn out up to the height of 5 mm should be replaced.
For check of brush springs it is necessary to put on a cover an anchor shaft. To establish brushes into place and to check a dynamometer effort of springs. The effort has to be within 8,5 — 14 N (0,85 — 1,4 kgfs) at the time of a spring separation from a brush. The ends of brush springs have to press the middle of a brush.
In a cover from the drive to check a condition of the plug (bearing); in case of need in a cover to install the new plug which diameter of an opening after a press fitting and expansion has to be in limits 12+0,035mm.

Fig. 9.22. Check of a winding of an anchor of a starter on short circuit with a magnetic conductor




To be convinced by means of a control lamp of lack of short circuit of a winding of an anchor on an anchor package. For this purpose connect one end to any of anchor lamels, and another — to an anchor iron package. The lamp should not burn (fig. 9.22).
It is attentive to examine an anchor. A front part of a winding of an anchor has to be on diameter less package of iron. The increased diameter of a front part of a winding indicates winding "rating". Such anchor is subject to replacement. The ends of wires of windings have to be reliably soldered to cockerels of a collector.
To check an anchor for lack of mezhvitkovy short circuits. In case of short circuit detection to replace an anchor.
The collector of an anchor has to be pure. At a considerable roughness of a collector or a vystupaniya of isolation it should be pierced on the lathe, then to grind a glass skin granularity 100 to Ra roughness = 1,25.
The collector beating concerning pins of a shaft should not exceed 0,05 mm. The anchor iron package beating concerning pins of a shaft should not exceed 0,25 mm. At the same time check lack of a deflection of a shaft as the deflection can be the reason of jamming of the drive on a shlitsevy part of a shaft. If on an anchor shaft, in that place where the starter gear wheel rotates, there is a yellow raid from the bearing, it should be removed with a small skin. Existence of a yellow raid often leads to jamming of a gear wheel on a shaft after launch of the engine and to anchor winding "rating".
Examine the drive of a starter outside and check lack of pro-slipping. The drive has to freely, move without jammings by a shlitsevy part of a shaft. At strong wear of plugs (bearings) of the drive they need to be replaced. Diameter of an opening of new plugs after a press fitting and development has to be 14+0,06 mm with Ra opening surface roughness = 1,25.
At deduction of an anchor the gear wheel has to rotate freely clockwise. Counterclockwise the gear wheel has to rotate only together with an anchor. Check of the coupling of a free wheeling on pro-slipping is made at test of a starter for full braking at the stand.
Serviceability of the involving and holding windings needs to be checked an ohmmeter or to measure resistance by means of the voltmeter and the ampermeter.
Resistance of the involving winding has to be 0,30 — 0,36 Ohms, and holding 1,06 — 1,14 Ohms. If windings are faulty, the traction relay should be replaced. Klemmovy bolts should be smoothed out, and at their strong burning out to turn on a corner 180 ° round its pivot-center. At strong wear of a contact disk to turn it not worn-out party to contacts.
The anchor of the traction relay in the case has to move freely. If the spring ring of an anchor has deformation, it should be replaced new or to correct.
After check, the replacements which all wore out, the damaged details and lubricant of bearings, pins and a shlitsevy part of a shaft it is possible to collect a starter by engine oil.
Assembly.
Assembly of a starter is made as it should be, the return to dismantling.
At a final inhaling of coupling screws it is necessary to combine pins and grooves on covers and the case.
To check the size of an axial side play of an anchor which has to be about 1 mm.
After assembly it is necessary to check work of a starter at the stand. At inclusion of a starter the drive has to move on a shlitsevy part of a shaft without jammings and come back to a starting position under the influence of a returnable spring. At turn of a gear wheel a hand clockwise the anchor should not start, at the return rotation the gear wheel has to rotate together with shaft. It is necessary to make check and adjustment of a starter.

Fig. 9.23. Measurement of provision of a gear wheel of the drive in the switched-off state




Installation of a gear wheel in the switched-off situation has to correspond to fig. 9.23. The distance And from the privalochny plane of a flange of a starter has to equal 34 mm.

Fig. 9.24. Scheme of check of adjustment of the switch of a starter




Fig. 9.25. Measurement of a gap from a gear wheel end face to a cup of a persistent ring at completely involved anchor of the traction relay




To check a full departure of a gear wheel at the switched-on traction relay. For this purpose to turn on the traction relay, as shown in fig. 9.24 Distance between an end face of a gear wheel and an emphasis have to be 3 — 5 mm (rice. 9.25). This gap is regulated by turn of excentric axis 11 (see fig. 9.18) the drive lever. After adjustment to tighten an axis nut, holding an axis from turn. Malfunction of a starter, correctness of its assembly and adjustment is defined:
- check of adjustment of the switch of a starter;
- check of a starter idling and at full braking.
mines

Fig. 9.26. The scheme of inclusion at test of a starter: 1 — the lever; 2 — a dynamometer; 3 — a starter; 4 — the traction relay of a starter; 5 — the switch; 6 — the index of tension; 7 — the index of current; 8 — the shunt of the index of current; 9 — the rechargeable battery




Are necessary for check of a starter the low-voltage unit (or well charged battery), the voltmeter of a direct current with a scale from 0 to 30 V, the index of a direct current with the shunt to 1000 A, a tachometer with a scale to 10 000 - 1 and a dynamometer. The scheme of inclusion of a starter is shown in fig. 9.26. If there is no special control test bench of model 532M, the starter is clamped in a vice and connect to the battery (the clip of a starter is connected through the index of current with plus, and the starter case to a minus conclusion of the battery). Wires with a section not less than 25 — 35 mm2 are applied to connection of a starter with the battery. Current and speed of an anchor at test idling are measured no more than through 30 from later inclusion of a starter.
The starter is considered passed test if at a voltage of 12 V it consumes current no more than 85 And yes not less than 4000 min.-1 develop rotation frequency.
At hard rotation of an anchor which usually is caused by distortions as a result of the wrong assembly of a starter or an anchor zadevaniye for poles, or short circuits between rounds, the starter consumes current of bigger force, and develops turns less than specified. The small force of the consumed current and the lowered speed at a normal tension on clips of a starter demonstrate bad contact in connections of wires or about an insufficient tension of springs of brushes.
For check of a starter at full braking on a gear wheel of the drive fix the lever connected to a dynamometer. It is better to use a hydraulic dynamometer. The brake moment of M of a starter is determined by a formula:
M = L x R,
where L — the lever length m; Р — the indication of a dynamometer, kg.
In order to avoid a starter overheat test should be carried out within a short period of time. If at the slowed-down gear wheel the anchor rotates, then the drive needs to be replaced.
When checking it is necessary to be careful as at the time of inclusion of a starter there will be a strong breakthrough of the lever strengthened on a gear wheel.
The serviceable starter at a power supply from completely charged battery consumes current no more than 550 And at a voltage not less than 8 V and develops the moment of 20,0 N · m (2,0 kgfs · м). If the consumed current higher than 550 And, and the brake moment is lower than 20,0 N · m (2,0 kgfs · l), it indicates malfunction of a winding of excitement. If the size of the brake moment and force of the consumed current is lower normal, it at a normal tension on clips of a starter indicates bad electric contacts of a starter or a weak tension of springs of brushes. The lowered tension on starter clips — less than 8,0 In — indicates bad contacts in wires or on malfunction of the battery.
Additional relay of a starter
The additional relay 711.3747-02 starters serves for reduction of current in a starter switch chain during its work.

Technical characteristics of the additional relay of a starter
Rated voltage, In..... 12
Inclusion tension, In no more..... 8
Switching off tension, In no more..... 4


Fig. 9.27. The scheme of turning on of the additional relay of a starter for check and adjustment: 1 — the rechargeable battery; 2 — a rheostat; 3 — a control lamp; 4 — the relay; 5 — the voltmeter; 6 — the switch




Control check of a condition of the relay is made according to the scheme specified fig. 9.27. After connection of devices according to this scheme turn on the switch 6, by means of a cursor of the resistor 2 establish tension on the voltmeter 5 within 1 — 2 V. Zatem by smooth movement of a cursor increase tension until turning on of the relay 4 (at the same time the control lamp 3 has to light up). The indication of the voltmeter at which the lamp was lit corresponds to tension of turning on of the relay. Movement of a cursor of the resistor to the opposite side reduce tension on a relay winding to its switching off. The indication of the voltmeter at which the lamp will go out corresponds to tension of switching off of the relay.
The relay is not subject to repair, at refusal it needs to be replaced with new