10.1.1. Rechargeable battery


Fig. 9.1. Rechargeable battery: 1 — a cover; 2 — a stopper; 3 — a jellied opening




Electrolyte level in the rechargeable battery (fig. 9.1) has to be between tags of MIN and MAX on the translucent case of the battery, and at their absence — on the lower edge of a jellied opening.
At operation it is recommended to support a certain density of electrolyte (tab. 9.1).

Table 9.1. Electrolyte density for various climatic areas *
Electrolyte density for various climatic areas *
Climatic zones. Average monthly air temperature in January, °C
Season
The electrolyte density specified to temperature of 25 °C, g/cm3
filled in
the charged battery
Very cold (from-50 to-30)
Winter                     Summer
                        1,28 1,24
                           1,30 1,26
Cold (from-30 to-15)
All the year round
1,26
1,28
Moderate (from-15 to-4)
All the year round
1,24
1,26
Hot (from 4 to 15)
All the year round
1,22
1,24
Warm, damp (from 4 to 6)
All the year round
1,2
1,22
* Electrolyte density tolerances from values in the table should not exceed         0,01 g/cm3.

In areas with sharply continental climate upon transition from winter operation on summer and vice versa, remove the battery from the car and at the charging station modify density.
Maintenance of the rechargeable battery
The battery needs to be examined and kept periodically clean and in the loaded state. Long stay of the battery in the discharged state or with the lowered electrolyte level, and also long launches of the engine, especially in cold time, put the battery out of action.
Level of electrolyte should be checked on the cold battery; if it is necessary, to add the distilled water. Level of electrolyte has to be 10 — 15 mm higher than the safety lattice established over a separator. At a doliva it is necessary to turn out a stopper, to add the distilled water to the level of the beginning of a carving in a bulk opening and to screw traffic jams into place. It is not necessary to allow excesses of the specified level in order to avoid electrolyte slopping.
It is periodically recommended to check electrolyte density by means of the densimetr having a scale from 1,100 to 1,300 g/cm3. Densimetr to establish in openings of accumulators vertically. After electrolyte suction by a pear to watch at measurement that the float of a densimetr did not concern flask walls.
To measure temperature of electrolyte and to make the amendment on temperature (tab. 9.2).
Density of electrolyte depends on degree of state of charge of the battery. Before measurement of density it is not necessary to add the distilled water in the battery and to make launch of the engine a starter. When determining degree of a razryazhennost of the battery it is necessary to use these tab. 9.3, having made to indications of a densimetr the temperature amendment according to tab. 9.2.

Table 9.2. Temperature amendment to the indication of a densimetr
Temperature amendment to the indication of a densimetr
Temperature of electrolyte, °C
Amendment to indications of a densimetr, g/cm3
From +45 to +60
0,02
From +30 to +45
0,01
From +20 to +30
0
From +5 to +19
- 0,01
From-10 to +4
- 0,02
From-25 to-11
- 0,03
From-40 to-26
- 0,04
From-55 to-41
- 0,05

Table 9.3. Definition of degree of state of charge of the rechargeable battery on density, g/cm3
Definition of degree of state of charge of the rechargeable battery on density, g/cm3
Completely charged battery
The battery is discharged
for 25%
for 50%
1,3
1,26
1,22
1,28
1,24
1,2
1,26
1,22
1,18
1,24
1,2
1,16
1,22
1,18
1,14


Note
Before installation on the car rechargeable batteries are charged to density of 1,25 — 1,27 g/cm3. Density of electrolyte has to be corrected depending on the climatic area of operation of the car

If when checking it turns out that the battery is discharged more than for 50% in the summer and for 25% in the winter, then it should be put on charging.
If electrolyte density in elements of the battery is not identical and the difference in density exceeds 0,01 g/cm3, it should be leveled, adding in accumulators electrolyte with a density of 1,4 g/cm3 when density is lower than norm, or the distilled water when it is higher than norm.
It is possible to add electrolyte with a density of 1,4 g/cm3 when the battery is completely charged in the rechargeable battery, i.e. density of electrolyte reached constancy and thanks to "boiling" bystry and reliable hashing of electrolyte is provided.
The condition of the battery can also be checked by means of a load fork.
Electrolyte prepares from mix of sulfuric acid and the distilled water (tab. 9.4).
Acidproof ware in which water is filled in at first is applied to preparation of electrolyte, and then — at continuous hashing — acid. Filling of water in acid is not allowed.
For receiving electrolyte of a certain density it is necessary to be guided by tab. 9.4.

Table 9.4. Preparation of electrolyte of a certain density
Preparation of electrolyte of a certain density
The required electrolyte density at a temperature of 25 °C, g/cm3
Quantity, l
waters
sulfuric acid
1,2
0,859
0,2
1,22
0,839
0,221
1,24
0,819
0,242
1,26
0,8
0,263
1,28
0,781
0,285
1,4
0,65
0,423

Note
Calculation is given for receiving 1 l of electrolyte. Density of sulfuric acid is 1,83 g/cm3 at a temperature of 25 °C.

Temperature of electrolyte has to be not lower than 15 ° and not above 25 °C.
After filling of electrolyte maintain 20 — 120 min. and measure density. If density of electrolyte went down more, than on 0,03 g/cm3, concerning density of the filled-in electrolyte, the battery can be used. If density decreased more, than by 0,03 g/cm3, the battery should be charged.
The new, not filled in with electrolyte, rechargeable batteries can be stored in not heated rooms at a temperature up to -30 °C.
Batteries are installed in one row in normal situation by conclusions up. Traffic jams of the battery have to be densely screwed. The pressurizing details should not be removed. The period of storage of batteries should not exceed three years.
To store the charged batteries with electrolyte in the cool room whenever possible at a constant temperature not lower than -30 ° and it is not above 0th °C.
The batteries removed from cars after short operation and also the batteries which are filled in with electrolyte, but not being in operation are installed on storage after their full charge and bringing density of electrolyte to the norm corresponding to the climatic area.
The batteries removed from cars after long operation before statement it is necessary to load, check for storage completely density of electrolyte and its level. Then to subject them control training to the category (see. "Check of the battery"), to be convinced of their satisfactory technical condition.
After a discharge of the battery it is necessary to load again, to dry wipe and screw traffic jams then they are ready for statement for storage.

Note
In the battery with electrolyte with a density of 1,30 g/cm3 accepted for winter time in areas with very frigid climate it is necessary to bring density to 1,29 g/cm3 as the concentrated electrolyte accelerates destruction of plates and separators.


Reserve batteries which can be required at any time for installation on cars have to be supported in a condition of full state of charge. Therefore at a positive temperature of storage for restoration of the capacity lost from a self-discharge, batteries should be recharged current 5,5 — 6,0 once a month And.
At a temperature of storage of 0 °C and below monthly to check density of electrolyte and to recharge batteries if density is lower than 1,22 g/cm3.
At the batteries placed in storage in connection with a seasonal break of operation it is also necessary to check electrolyte density monthly. It is necessary to load them just before commisioning unless falling of density of electrolyte (carried to 2 °C) is revealed it is lower than 1,22 g/cm3 in storage time at a temperature below 0 °C or falling of density of electrolyte 1,20 g/cm3 in storage time at a positive temperature are lower. The maximum period of storage of batteries with electrolyte at a temperature not above 0 °C — no more than one and a half years, and at a temperature of 15 — 25 °C — about 9 months.
Check of the battery
For check of serviceability of the battery carry out a control and training cycle:
- to charge the battery with current 5,5 A;
- by the end of charging if electrolyte on density differs from specified in tab. 9.1 to make operational development of density of electrolyte by a dolivka of the distilled water when density is higher than norm, and a dolivka of electrolyte with a density of 1,4 g/cm3 when it is lower than norm;
- upon termination of charging the battery is subjected to a discharge current 5,5 A.
Electrolyte temperature at the beginning of a discharge has to be 18 — 27 °C. To make measurements of tension and temperature every two hours.
After tension in accumulators decreases to 1,85 B, measurements are made every 15 min. After undervoltage to 1,75 B measurements are made continuously until in one of accumulators tension decreases up to 1,7 Century. After a discharge bring the battery to completely loaded state again.
If under these conditions duration of a discharge is not less, than it is specified in tab. 9.5 for batteries with electrolyte of the corresponding density, the battery is quite suitable for operation.

Table 9.5. Definition of serviceability of the rechargeable battery
Definition of serviceability of the rechargeable battery
Density of an elektorlit of the charged battery specified to temperature of 25 °C, g/cm3
Discharge duration, h
1,28
7,5
1,26
6,5
1,24
5,5