5.1.4. Engine lubrication system
The engine lubrication system — combined: under pressure and spraying. Under pressure radical and conrod bearings of a bent shaft, camshaft bearings, persistent bearings of cranked and distributive shaft, plugs of yokes and the top tips of bars of pushers are oiled. Other details are oiled by sprayed.
Fig. 4.11. Scheme of the lubrication system: 1 — a reception branch pipe of the oil pump; 2 — the reducing valve; 3 — an opening for oil discharge; 4 — the oil highway; 5 — the sensor of the index of pressure of oil; 6 — an opening for supply of oil to gear wheels of the drive of the oil pump; 7 — a screw flute; 8 — a tube for lubricant of distributive gear wheels; 9 — a flute on the first neck of the camshaft; 10 — a cover of a maslozalivny mouth; 11 — a cavity in an axis of yokes; 12 — the channel in a bent shaft; 13 — a stopper; 14 — perepuskny the valve is open; 15 — perepuskny the valve is closed; 16 — the filtering element; 17 — a stopper for discharge of a sediment; 18 — an opening for oil spraying; 19 — the sensor of emergency pressure of oil; 20 — the oil pump; 21 — a stopper; 22 — the index of level of oil; 23 — the channel for supply of oil to an axis of yokes
The lubrication system includes the oil pump 20 (fig. 4.11) with a reception branch pipe and the reducing valve (it is established in an oil case), oil channels, an oil filter with the perepuskny valve, an oil case, the index of level of oil, a cover of a maslozalivny mouth, the sensor of the index of pressure of oil, the sensor of a signaling device of emergency pressure of oil. The oil which is taken away by the pump from an oil case comes through an oil receiver on channels in a pump housing and an external tube to the case of an oil filter. Further, having passed through the filtering element 16, oil comes to a cavity of the second partition of the block of cylinders from where on the sverleny channel to the oil highway — longitudinal oil channel 4. From the longitudinal channel oil on inclined channels in partitions of the block moves on radical bearings of a bent shaft and bearings of the camshaft. The oil following from the fifth support of the camshaft in a block cavity between shaft and a cap is taken away in a case through a cross opening 3 in a shaft neck.
On conrod necks oil arrives on channels 12 from radical necks of a bent shaft. In an axis of yokes oil is brought from the back support of the camshaft having in the middle a ring flute which is reported through channels 23 in the block, a head of cylinders and in the fourth main rack of an axis of yokes with a cavity 11 in an axis of yokes.
Through openings oil comes to axes of yokes on plugs of yokes and further on channels in yokes and adjusting screws on the top tips of bars of pushers.
Oil is brought to camshaft drive gear wheels on the tube 8 pressed in the opening in a forward end face of the block connected to a ring flute 9 on the first neck of the camshaft. The oil stream directed to teeths of gear wheels is thrown out of the exhaust outlet of a tube having small diameter.
Via the cross channel in the first neck of the camshaft oil from the same flute of a neck arrives also on a persistent flange of the camshaft. Gear wheels of the drive of the oil pump are greased with the stream of oil which is thrown out from the channel 6 in the block connected to the fourth neck of the camshaft which also have a ring flute. Walls of cylinders are greased with oil splashes from the stream which is thrown out from an opening 18 in the lower head of a rod at coincidence of this opening to the channel in a neck of a bent shaft and also the oil following from under bearings of a bent shaft.
All other details (the valve — its core and an end face, the roller of the drive of the oil pump and sensor distributor of ignition, camshaft cams) are oiled, following from gaps in bearings and sprayed by moving details of the engine. Lubrication system capacity — 6 l. Oil in the engine is filled in through the maslozalivny mouth located on a cover of yokes and closed by a cover with sealing rubber laying. Level of oil is controlled on the tags "П" and "About" on a core of the index of level. Level of oil should be supported between the tags "П" and "About".
Pressure in the lubrication system at average speeds of the movement of the car (about 50 km/h) has to be 200 — 400 kPa (2 — 4 kgfs/cm2). It can raise on not heated-up engine to 450 kPa (4,5 kgfs/cm2) and to fall in hot weather to 150 kPa (1,5 kgfs/cm2). Reduction of pressure of oil with an average frequency of rotation is lower than 100 kPa (1 kgf/cm2) and with a small frequency of rotation of idling — lower than 50 kPa (0,5 kgfs/cm2) svidelstvut about malfunctions in the lubrication system or about excessive wear of bearings of cranked and distributive shaft. Further operation of the engine in these conditions has to be stopped.
Pressure of oil is defined by the index on a guard of devices which sensor is screwed in the case of an oil filter. Besides, the system is supplied with an alarm lamp of emergency pressure of oil which sensor is screwed in an opening in the lower part of the filter. The alarm lamp is on the dashboard and shines red light at pressure decline in system lower than 40 — 80 kPa (0,4 — 0,8 kgfs/cm2). It is impossible to operate the car with the shining lamp of emergency pressure of oil. Only the short-term luminescence of a lamp is admissible with a small frequency of rotation of idling and when braking. If the system is serviceable, then at some increase in frequency of rotation the lamp dies away.
In case of understating or overestimate of pressure of oil from the sizes specified above it is necessary to check first of all serviceability of sensors and indexes as it is specified in the section "Electric equipment".
Fig. 4.12. Oil pump: 1 — a reception branch pipe with a grid; 2 — a cover; 3 — the leading gear wheel; 4 — the case; 5 — the roller; 6 — the conducted gear wheel; 7 — laying; 8 — laying of a branch pipe
The oil pump (fig. 4.12) of gear type is installed in an oil case. The pump is attached by two hairpins to inclined platforms on the third and fourth partitions of the block of cylinders. Accuracy of installation of the pump is provided with two pins plugs pressed in the block of cylinders. The pump housing 4 is cast from aluminum alloy, gear wheels 3 and 6 have direct teeths and are made of metal ceramics (the baked metalpowder). The leading gear wheel 3 is fixed on the roller 5 by a pin. On the top end of the roller the six-sided opening which the shaft of the drive of the oil pump enters is made. The conducted gear wheel 6 freely rotates on the axis pressed in a pump housing.
The cover 2 pumps is made of gray cast iron and fastens to the pump four bolts. Under a cover cardboard laying 0,3 mm thick is put.
The oil receiver and reception branch pipe of 1 oil pump are made in the uniform case of aluminum alloy. On a reception part of a branch pipe of a zavaltsovan a grid. The branch pipe fastens to the oil pump four bolts together with a cover of the oil pump through paronitovy laying 8.
Productivity of the oil pump is much higher, than it is required for the engine. The stock of productivity is necessary for ensuring the corresponding pressure of oil in system on any power setting. Excess oil at the same time comes from a delivery cavity of the pump via the reducing valve back to the soaking-up cavity. At increase in a consumption of oil through gaps in bearings (if the engine wears out) in system necessary pressure is also supported, but through the reducing valve in this case back in a reception cavity of the pump there passes the smaller amount of oil.
The reducing valve of plunger type is located in the case of the oil pump. The end face of a plunger of 1 (fig. 4.13) is affected by pressure of oil under the influence of which the plunger, overcoming effort of a spring 2, moves. At achievement of a certain pressure the plunger opens an opening of the drain channel, passing excess oil in a reception cavity of the pump.
The spring of the reducing valve leans on a flat washer 3 and fastens the forelock 4 passed through openings in inflow on a pump housing.
The reducing valve is not adjusted; the necessary characteristic on pressure is provided with the geometrical sizes of a pump housing and the characteristic of a spring: compression of a spring to length of 40 mm requires effort within 43,5 — 48,5 N (4,35 — 4,85 kgfs). In operation it is not allowed to change in any way effort of a spring of the reducing valve.
Fig. 4.14. Drive of the oil pump and sensor distributor of ignition: 1 — the ignition sensor distributor; 2 — the plug; 3 and 9 — pins; 4 — the case; 5 — the roller; 6 — a washer persistent steel; 7 — a washer persistent bronze; 8 — a gear wheel; 10 — the roller of the drive of the oil pump
The drive of the oil pump and the sensor distributor of ignition (fig. 4.14) is carried out from the camshaft by couple of kosozuby gear wheels. The leading gear wheel — steel, is filled in in a body of the pig-iron camshaft. The conducted gear wheel 8 — steel, thermostrengthened, is fixed by a pin on the roller 5 rotating in the pig-iron case. The top end of the roller is supplied with the plug 2 having a cut (it is displaced on 1,15 mm from a roller axis) for the ignition sensor distributor drive. The plug on the roller is fixed by a pin 3. The six-sided roller 10 which lower end enters a six-sided opening of the roller of the oil pump is pivotally connected to the lower end of the roller.
At rotation the gear wheel 8 through persistent washers 6 and 7 nestles on an end face of the pig-iron case of the drive. Lubricant of this knot, and also the roller in the case of the drive is produced by the oil sprayed by gear wheels of the drive and which is flowing down on a block wall. The oil which is flowing down on walls gets to a cut (trap) at the lower end face of the case of the drive and further through an opening — on the surface of the roller. In an opening for the roller in the case of the drive the spiral flute which oil at rotation of the roller climbs up and is evenly distributed on all its length is cut. Excess oil from the top cavity of the case of the drive is taken away back in a case on a drain opening in the case.
The correct position of the sensor distributor of ignition on the engine is provided with such installation of the drive in the block at which at the time of finding of the piston of the first cylinder in VMT (a compression step) the cut on the plug of the drive settles down parallel to an engine axis on the maximum removal from it.
Fig. 4.15. Filter of purification of oil: 1 — a cover; 2 and 5 — sealing rings; 3 — laying; 4 — the filtering element; 6 — a stopper of a drain opening; 7 — the sensor of emergency pressure of oil
The filter of purification of oil (fig. 4.15) — full-line, with the paper or cotton replaceable filtering elements. Through the filter there passes all oil forced by the pump in system.
The following filtering elements are applied to these engines: NAMI-VG-10, REGOTMAS-412-1-05 and REGOTMAS-412-1-06.
The filter consists of the case, a cover of 1 central core with the perepuskny valve and the filtering element 4. The case of the filter is manufactured of aluminum alloy and fastens to the block of cylinders through paronitovy laying by four hairpins. The central core is screwed on a hard carving in the case. The top end of a core has a carving for a nut of fastening of a cover of the filter. From below the stopper 6 for discharge of the defended pollution is screwed in the case.
In the lower part of the case will screw the sensor 7 of emergency pressure of oil in a lug. The cover of 1 filter is made of aluminum alloy. It fastens the cap-type nut, navertyvayemy on the carving end of the central core acting from a cover. In a pro-point of a cover rubber sealing laying is put. The nut of a cover is condensed with copper laying.
Central core of the filter hollow. In its top part the valve consisting of a textolite plate of a saddle of the valve, a spring and an emphasis of a spring is located perepuskny. In a core four rows of openings for oil pass are drilled; the top row is located over the valve and over the filtering element. At the normal state of an element its resistance is small, about 10 — 20 kPa (0,1 — 0,2 kgfs/cm2), and all oil passes through it, as shown in the scheme conditional shooters. From the filtering element the purified oil passes through openings in a core and further in the lubrication system. At an element contamination its resistance increases, and when pressure reaches 70 — 90 kPa (0,7 — 0,9 kgfs/cm2), perepuskny the valve opens and begins to pass oil, passing эломеж, as shown in fig. 4.11.
At installation in the case end faces of the filtering element from below and from above are condensed with the rings of 2 and 5 (fig. 4.15) from oilproof rubber which are densely covering the central core. Consolidation on end faces is provided with the spring and a basic washer pressing an element to a cover lug end face.