5.1.14. Repair of the engine
Need under repair of the engine comes after the run about 150 000 km. To this run gaps reach the sizes causing falling of engine capacity, reduction of pressure of oil in the oil highway, sharp increase in a consumption of oil (over 0,25 l / 100 km), excessive smoking of the engine, the increased fuel consumption, and also the increased knocks.
Approximately gaps in interface of the main details owing to wear should not exceed the following sizes, mm:
- a piston skirt — a cylinder sleeve..... 0,25
- a piston ring — a flute in the piston (on height)..... 0,15
- lock of a piston ring..... 2,5
- the piston — a piston finger..... 0,015
- the top head of a rod — a piston finger..... 0,03
- conrod and radical
- bearings..... 0,15
- a valve core — the plug..... 0,20
- axial side play of the camshaft..... 0,25
- axial side play of a bent shaft..... 0,40
Operability of the engine can be restored by replacement of worn-out details new the standard size or regrinding of worn-out details and application of the new details of the repair size interfaced to them.
The following details of the repair sizes are issued: pistons, piston rings, inserts of radical and conrod bearings of a bent shaft, saddle of inlet and final valves, the semi-processed plugs of the camshaft and the directing plugs of valves.
Removal and installation of the engine
For removal of the engine the car needs to be installed on a viewing hole. The workplace has to be equipped a waist or other lifting device with a loading capacity not less than 300 kg. To perform work on removal of the engine in the following order:
- to open a cowl and to remove it, having turned off four bolts of its fastening to loops;
- to merge cooling liquid from the cooling system, having turned off a stopper on a radiator and having opened faucets on the block of cylinders and a heater. To remove a stopper of a broad tank;
- to merge oil from a case of the engine and from the transmission, having turned off traffic jams of drain openings. After discharge of oil of a stopper to put into place and to tighten hardly;
- to remove the rechargeable battery;
- to hook on the engine for cargo eyes and to pull a waist chain.
The works which are carried out from below the car:
- to remove the driveshaft in collecting (see the subsection "Cardan Broadcast");
- to establish a stopper cap (fig. 4.40) in a transmission extender opening;
- to turn off nuts of fastening of a back support of the engine to a cross-piece;
- to disconnect a cross-piece from a frame of the car and to remove a cross-piece;
- to disconnect a speedometer shaft from the transmission;
- to disconnect an arm of fastening of reception pipes of system of production of the fulfilled gases from the transmission;
- to disconnect reception pipes from a final collector of the engine;
- to disconnect wires from the backing light switch on the transmission;
- to turn off two bolts of fastening of the working cylinder of the drive of switching off of coupling and to disconnect the cylinder from a coupling case.
The works which are carried out on the left side of the car:
— to disconnect from the distributor of ignition of a wire of high and low voltage, the ignitions going to the coil, wires from a starter, from sensors of pressure and emergency pressure of oil on an oil filter, from the sensor of the index of temperature of cooling liquid on the case of the thermostat and the sensor of a signaling device of an overheat of cooling liquid in a cover of a head of cylinders;
- to disconnect a fuel-supply line hose from the fuel pump;
- to turn off a bolt of fastening of the left pillow to an arm on the engine.
The works which are carried out on the right side of the car:
- to disconnect wires from the generator;
- to disconnect hoses of an intake of warm and cold air from the air filter, branch pipes of an intake of air, the thermoprotective screen of an exhaust pipe and to remove them;
— to disconnect a hose of ventilation of a case from the air filter, a cover of yokes and to remove it;
- to uncover also the filtering element of the air filter;
- to unbend moustaches of lock washers and to turn off nuts of fastening of the case of the air filter, to carefully remove nuts and lock washers, having excluded hit them in the engine;
- to remove the case of the air filter with a flange and laying, to close the carburetor a pure napkin;
- to disconnect wires from the carburetor;
- to disconnect a rope of the drive of butterfly valves and draft of the air gate from the carburetor;
- to disconnect a fuel restart-up fuel-supply line hose from the carburetor;
- to disconnect hoses from the electromagnetic valve of system of the economizer of compulsory idling;
- to disconnect two hoses of a heater from the engine;
- to disconnect a faucet of discharge of cooling liquid;
- to disconnect a hose of the vacuum amplifier of brakes from an inlet pipe;
- to disconnect a wire of "weight";
- to turn off a bolt of fastening of the right pillow to an arm on the engine.
The works which are carried out in front:
- to remove a lattice of facing of a radiator, having weakened fastening bolts;
- to disconnect a cowl lock cable;
- having turned off bolts, to remove the top panel of facing of a radiator;
- having turned off bolts, to remove a level of the lower fastening of facing of a radiator;
- to disconnect hoses from a broad tank to the case of the thermostat and a distributive branch pipe;
- to disconnect hoses from a radiator and from the engine, to remove hoses;
- to turn off bolts of fastening of a radiator and to remove it.
The works which are carried out in a body:
- to lift a rubber sealant to the gear shifting lever handle;
- to turn off a cap of fastening of the lever on a mouth of a cover of the transmission and to pull out the lever up;
- to close an opening in a mouth a pure napkin.
To take out the engine assembled with coupling and the transmission. Installation of the engine is into place made in the sequence, the return to removal.
Instructions on repair.
Gaps and tightnesses, and also technical requirements which need to be observed at assembly of the engine and its knots are given in table 4.6.
The engines coming to repair have to be carefully cleared of dirt. Dismantling of the engine, as well as assembly, it is recommended to make at the stand allowing to install the engine in the provisions providing free access to all details during dismantling and assembly with the tool of the corresponding size (wrenches, strippers, devices) which working surface has to be in good shape.
At an individual method of repair of a detail, suitable for further work, have to be established on the former places. Pistons, piston rings, sleeves of cylinders, rods, piston fingers, inserts, valves, bars, yokes and pushers at removal need to be marked in any way, without causing damage of details (a kerneniye, inscribing, an attachment of labels, etc.).
At the depersonalized repair of engines it is necessary to remember that covers of rods with rods and covers of radical bearings with the block of cylinders are processed assembled and therefore they cannot be razukomplektovyvat. It is not recommended to razukomplektovyvat a bent shaft with a flywheel and coupling as these knots at the plant are exposed to balancing in assembled form.
Gear wheels of the gas-distributing mechanism are selected on noise and a gap in gearing therefore it is necessary to avoid their razukomplektovaniye.
The coupling case (the top part) is processed together with the block therefore it is possible to disconnect it from the block only at repair or replacement with new.
Dismantling of the engine
Dismantling of the engine is recommended to be carried out in the following order:
- to take out a coupling switching off fork;
- to remove the transmission from the engine;
- to remove the fan;
- to remove the generator and a starter;
- to disconnect wires of high voltage from candles, to pick up the phone of the vacuum regulator and to remove the ignition sensor distributor;
- to turn out candles;
- to remove the filter of thin purification of fuel with an arm, the fuel pump and fuel-supply lines;
- to remove the carburetor together with laying and a safety guard, previously having removed tubes of ventilation of a case and recirculation of the fulfilled gases;
- to remove the filter of purification of oil, previously having removed sensors of the index of pressure and emergency pressure of oil and an oil supply tube;
- to pick up the phone of the index of level of oil together with the index;
- to remove the valve of recirculation of the fulfilled gases;
- to remove the gas pipeline and laying of the gas pipeline;
- to uncover yokes with laying, trying not to damage the last;
- to remove an axis of yokes with racks and to sort it;
- to take out bars of pushers;
- to remove a head of cylinders. If there is no need for dismantling and repair of the case of the thermostat, the gas pipeline and a head of cylinders, the head of cylinders can be removed together with these knots;
- to shoot a tension video and the drive of the fan;
- to remove the water pump;
- to fix by plugs clips of a sleeve of cylinders in order to avoid their drop-out of the block in the course of further dismantling of the engine (fig. 4.50);
- by means of adaptation (fig. 4.51) to make dismantle of springs of valves. That the plate of springs of the valve descended from crackers, it is necessary to strike slightly after a preliminary inhaling of the screw with the hammer handle a plate stripper brackets. To take out valves;
- to mark valves according to their arrangement;
- to remove the sensor distributor drive;
- to uncover a box of pushers;
- to take out pushers from nests and to lay them one after another;
- to remove the lower part of a case of coupling;
- to remove an oil case;
- to turn out the coupling screw from a forward end face of a bent shaft and to remove it together with a gear washer;
- to remove a pulley nave together with a pulley damper of a bent shaft by means of a stripper;
- to uncover distributive gear wheels;
- to remove the same stripper a gear wheel of the camshaft and a gear wheel of a bent shaft, having removed previously a maslootrazhatel;
- to remove a persistent flange of the camshaft with the expansion plug;
- to carefully take out the camshaft. It can be taken out assembled with a persistent flange and a gear wheel. In this case it is necessary to turn off a face key through openings in a gear wheel two bolts of fastening of a persistent flange to the block;
- to pick up the phone of lubricant of distributive gear wheels;
- to remove a persistent washer of a bent shaft;
- to remove a forward washer of the persistent bearing of a bent shaft;
- to remove the oil pump;
- to uncover conrod bearings together with inserts;
- to take out pistons together with rods. Before dismantling of conrod and piston group it is necessary to double-check correctness of tags on rods and their covers, and also their compliance to serial numbers of cylinders;
- to remove a stripper piston rings from pistons (fig. 4.52);
Fig. 4.53. Vypressovka of a piston finger from the piston a stripper: 1 — the piston; 2 — a piston finger; 3 — a mandrel; 4 — the stripper screw
- to take out lock rings from pistons. To Vypressovat by means of a stripper piston fingers from pistons (fig. 4.53).
- to remove the holder of stuffing of a bent shaft;
- to uncover radical bearings with inserts. To check correctness of tags on covers of 2, 3 and 4 radical bearings;
- to take out a bent shaft from the block of cylinders;
- to remove a back washer of the persistent bearing of a bent shaft;
- to take out stuffing of back consolidation of a bent shaft from the block of cylinders and the holder;
- to remove press and conducted clutch plates;
- to remove a flywheel;
Fig. 4.54. A stripper for a bearing vypressovka from a bent shaft: 1 — capture; 2 — a hairpin; 3 — baizes; 4 — the handle
- by means of a stripper (fig. 4.54) to vypressovat the bearing from a bent shaft.
Assembly of the engine
Before assembly of the engine it is necessary to clear all its details of a deposit and resinous deposits. It is impossible to wash out in alkaline solutions of a detail, made of aluminum alloys (the block, a head of cylinders, pistons, etc.) as these solutions corrode aluminum.
For cleaning of details of a deposit the following solutions are recommended:
for aluminum details
- soda (Na2CO3)..... 18,5
- soap (green or economic)..... 10,0
- liquid glass..... 8,5
- water, l..... 1,0
for steel details
- the caustic soda (NaOH)..... 25
- soda (Na2CO3)..... 33
- soap (green or economic)..... 8,5
- liquid glass..... 1,5
- water, l..... 1,0
At assembly of the engine it is necessary to meet the following conditions:
- to wipe all details with a pure napkin and to blow compressed air, and to oil all surfaces of friction pure engine;
- to examine details before statement on the place (whether there are no cracks, chips, забоин and other defects), to check reliability of landing of other details pressed in them. Defective parts are subject to repair or replacement with new;
- to grease the carving parts of details and knots leaving in a cavity of the oil highway and in a cooling system cavity with anaerobic Unigerm-6 sealant. It is possible to apply the minium or whitewash divorced on natural drying oil;
- motionless consolidations, especially joints of details (the lower planes of the block of cylinders and a cover of distributive gear wheels, the holder of stuffing — the block of cylinders) to grease with Elastosil 137-83 glue-sealant or UN-25 paste.
On the engine are not allowed to statement:
- the forelocks, a shplintovochny wire and lock plates which were in the use;
- the spring washers which lost elasticity;
- the damaged laying;
- the details having on a carving more than two the hammered or broken threads;
- bolts and hairpins with the extended carving;
- bolts and nuts with worn-out sides.
Bolts and nuts have to be as appropriate zakontrena (forelocks, a shplintovochny wire, springs and special washers and lock-nuts).
To make assembly of the engine in the following order:
- to clear all privalochny surfaces of the block of the laying which stuck and torn when dismantling;
- to fix the block of cylinders at the stand, to turn out from forward and back end faces of a stopper of the oil channel and to blow all oil channels compressed air. To wrap traffic jams into place.
Fig. 4.56. Check of perpendicularity of a back end face of a case of coupling of an axis of a bent shaft
If replacement of a case of coupling is required or it is established on the block after repair, it is necessary to remove previously from the block two adjusting pins, then to fix a case on the block by bolts. On extreme inserts install a bent shaft to which flange the indicator rack fastens in the block. Rotating a bent shaft, check an opening beating for the aligning burt of the transmission, and also perpendicularity of a back end face of a case of coupling concerning an axis of a bent shaft, as shown in fig. 4.55 and 4.56. The beating of an opening of a case and an end face should not exceed 0,3 mm, an end face — 0,15 mm. If the beating of an opening exceeds the specified size, then it is necessary to weaken an inhaling of bolts and easy blows to a flange of a case to achieve its correct installation. After an inhaling of bolts of an opening for adjusting pins in a case and the block develop to the repair size. Blackness in openings is not allowed. After that in openings press pins which diameter is 0,015 — 0,051 m more than the sizes of openings. The beating of an end face of a case is eliminated with a shabrovka. It must be kept in mind that at the above described check it is necessary to use not worn-out bent shaft and inserts which need to be removed after replacement of a case;
- to replace defective sleeves of cylinders new as follows:
Fig. 4.57. Vypressovka of a sleeve from the block of cylinders the combined stripper: 1 — a sleeve; 2 — a pad; 3 — a nut; 4 — a hairpin; 5 — a bolt; 6 — an axis; 7 — the screw
- a) by means of the combined stripper (fig. 4.57) to vypressovat an old sleeve. Having implanted stripper pads into the engine cylinder, it is necessary to rest hairpins 4 against the block and to move apart pads a razzhimny bolt 5. Further, rotating the screw 7, to vypressovat a sleeve from the cylinder;
- b) to carefully clear of a scum and corrosion the landing surfaces and the surfaces of consolidation on a sleeve and on the block;
- c) to insert the repaired sleeve with laying from soft copper into the cylinder from which it was taken out. The sleeve has to enter the cylinder freely, without efforts and act over the block plane on 0,02 — 0,10 mm. It is more convenient to check previously sleeve utopaniye size in the cylinder without laying. Has to be Utopaniye within 0,20 — 0,25 mm;
- d) to fix a sleeve by the holder that it did not drop out;
1. When replacing worn-out or defective sleeves with new or repaired it is necessary to insert them so that the tag which is available on the lower aligning sleeve part, specifying its group was located in the cross plane of the block. In other cases before taking out sleeves from the block, they need to be marked serial numbers, and also to mark situation in the block that at assembly to provide their statement in former situation.
2. When using of already working sleeves of cylinders, and also at each installation in these sleeves of new piston rings it is necessary boring on the machine or a shaber to remove from a sleeve not worn-out corbel over the top compression ring. Metal should be removed level with a worn-out part of a sleeve.
- to cut off from a cord two stuffings of back consolidation of a bent shaft (length of 120 mm everyone), to enclose them in the block and the holder;
- to make subassembly of a bent shaft, for this purpose to turn out all traffic jams of mud-catchers of conrod necks and to remove from them deposits. To wash out and blow oil channels and cavities of mud-catchers compressed air, to wrap traffic jams the moment of 38 — 42 N · m (3,8 — 4,2 kgfs · l);
- to check a condition of working surfaces of a bent shaft. Zaboina, the tease and other external defects are not allowed;
- to press in the back end of a bent shaft the ball bearing 80203 AC9 with two protective washers. It is allowed to use the bearing 60203A with one protective washer, at the same time in a cavity for the bearing it is necessary to put 20 g of Litol-24 lubricant;
- to tighten a flywheel to a bent shaft. To tighten nuts the moment of 76 — 83 N · m (7,6 — 8,3 kgfs · м). To Zakontrit nuts, having unbent one of moustaches of a lock plate on a nut side;
- to tighten to a flywheel press a clutch plate assembled with a casing, previously having centered the conducted disk by means of a mandrel (it is possible to use a main shaft of the transmission) on an opening in the bearing in a back end face of a bent shaft. The tags "0" which are beaten out on a casing of a press disk and on a flywheel around one from openings for bolts of fastening of a casing have to be combined. To make an inhaling of bolts the moment of 20 — 25 N · m (2,0 — 2,5 kgfs · м).
- the bent shaft, a flywheel and coupling are balanced assembled and therefore when replacing one of these details it is necessary to make dynamic balancing, drilling metal from a flywheel as it is specified in table 4.3. Balancing of a bent shaft, flywheel and coupling assembled should not be begun if the initial imbalance exceeds 200 g · see. In this case it is necessary to raskomplektovat and check knot balancing of each detail separately (see table 4.3.);
— to put on the first radical neck of a bent shaft a back washer of the persistent bearing an antifrictional layer to a cheek of a bent shaft;
— to press out stuffing of back consolidation of a bent shaft in the block and the holder a mandrel (fig. 4.58); a sharp knife to cut off on the block and the holder the acting ends of stuffing. The cut at the same time has to be equal. Vystupany stuffings over the socket plane — 0,5 — 1,0 mm;
- to wipe with a pure napkin inserts of radical bearings and their bed. To establish inserts in a bed;
- to oil pure engine inserts of radical bearings and a neck of a bent shaft and to lay a bent shaft in the block of cylinders;
- to put on covers of radical bearings block hairpins so that the fixing ledges on the top and lower inserts of each cover were on the one hand, and numbers which are beaten out on covers corresponded to numbers of beds. At installation of a cover of the forward radical bearing the short mustache of a back washer has to enter a cover groove. The end face of a cover of the forward bearing has to be in one plane with an end face of the block of cylinders;
- to put covers of radical bearings on the places easy percussion by the rubber hammer, covers have to enter grooves of beds of the block of cylinders;
- to put on washer hairpins, profit nuts, to apply 2 — 3 drops (0,06 g) of Unigerm-9 sealant on a carving part of nuts and to evenly tighten nuts. The final inhaling needs to be carried out a dynamometer key the moment of 100 — 110 N · m (10 — 11 kgfs · м). If are absent sealant, then latching of nuts can be made a lock plate 24-1005301-01;
1. Before assembly from nuts and hairpins it is necessary to remove the remains of earlier applied sealant, to degrease them gasoline and to dry.
2. In case of a vyvertyvaniye of hairpins from the block they need to be turned with sealant use as it is stated above.
- to establish rubber laying and their side surface acting from a groove in grooves of the holder of stuffing, to cover with soap solution. To establish the holder into place and to tighten nuts;
- to turn a bent shaft which has to rotate freely at small effort. It is possible to rotate a bent shaft for a flywheel or by means of adaptation consisting of a main shaft of the transmission with the turnkey tetrahedron welded on it or the handle with a square opening. Adaptation can be also used for centering at statement of the conducted clutch plate;
- to put a forward washer of the persistent bearing an antifrictional layer outside that the pins pressed in the block and a cover entered washer grooves;
— to put on a steel persistent washer of a bent shaft a facet in an internal opening towards a forward washer of the persistent bearing;
- to napressovat against the stop a gear wheel of a bent shaft and to check its axial gap. Check is made as follows: to put the screw-driver (a neck, the hammer handle, etc.) between the first crank of a shaft and a forward wall of the block and, using it as the lever, to wring out a shaft to a back part of the engine. To determine a gap between an end face of a back washer of the persistent bearing and the plane of a burt of the first radical neck by the probe. The gap has to be within 0,125 — 0,325 mm;
Fig. 4.60. Selection of the piston to a sleeve by means of a tape probe and a dynamometer 24-U-17202
- to make subassembly of conrod and piston group. To clear the bottoms of pistons and a flute of piston rings of a deposit, as shown in fig. 4.59. In case of replacement of pistons, sleeves, piston fingers or rods subassembly of the interfaced couples it is necessary to produce (20±3) °C at a temperature of details. In the chiseled or new sleeves it is necessary to install pistons of dimensional groups, identical with a sleeve. Selection from the next groups is allowed, at the same time, as well as at selection of pistons in the working sleeves, selection is made on effort of drawing of a tape probe 0,05 mm thick and 10 mm wide. The tape probe is placed in the plane, a perpendicular axis of a piston finger, on the largest diameter of the piston. The effort on the dynamometer connected to a tape probe (fig. 4.60) has to be 35 — 55 N (3,5 — 5,5 kgfs);
- to pick up a piston finger to a rod so that it densely entered a rod opening under effort of a thumb of a hand (fig. 4.61), moved freely, without jammings and did not drop out under the influence of own weight at a rod opening axis arrangement at an angle 45 ° (approximately). The piston finger and a rod have to be one or adjacent dimensional group. At selection the piston finger has to be slightly oiled by engine. Dimensional groups of the piston and a piston finger have to coincide.
The piston with a piston finger, piston rings and a rod assembled have to be controlled on weight. The difference in weight on one engine should not exceed 12 g;
Fig. 4.62. A press fitting of a piston finger in the piston and a rod: 1 — the piston; 2 — a rod; 3 — a mandrel; 4 — a piston finger; 5 — a thrust bearing; 6 — the screw
- to press a piston finger in the piston and a rod by means of adaptation. At the same time to heat the piston to temperature of 60 — 88 °C, slightly to oil a piston finger engine. To connect the piston the directing mandrel 3 to a rod, to put on a piston finger the thin end of a mandrel, as shown in fig. 4.62, to put on a thrust bearing 5 a finger and the screw 6 to send in addition a finger into place. The finger press fitting in the cold piston can lead to damage of a surface of openings in piston lugs, and also to deformation of the piston. At statement of the piston (on a tag "BEFORE" on the piston) the opening for cylinder mirror lubricant from the lower head of a rod has to be turned into the cylinder aside, opposite to the camshaft;
- to pick up for the cylinder piston rings, as shown in fig. 4.63. The gap measured in joints of rings has to be 0,3 — 0,7 mm at compression rings and 0,3 — 1,0 mm at steel disks of an oil scraper ring. In worn-out cylinders the smallest gap — 0,3 mm;
— the probe to check a gap between rings and a wall of a piston flute, as shown in fig. 4.64. To make check on a piston circle in several points. The size of a gap has to be for the top and lower compression rings within 0,050 — 0,870 mm, for a combined oil scraper ring — 0,135 — 0,335 mm;
Fig. 4.4. Installation of piston rings on the piston: 1 — the top compression ring; 2 — the lower compression ring; 3 — a ring disk; 4 — an axial dilator; 5 — a radial dilator
- to put on by means of adaptation piston rings the piston. The lower compression ring is put by internal bore up (to a piston bottom) (see fig. 4.4). Rings in flutes have to move freely;
- to insert pistons into cylinders as follows:
• to wipe with a napkin of a bed of rods and their covers, to wipe and insert into them inserts;
• to turn a bent shaft so that cranks of the first and fourth cylinders reached the position corresponding to NMT;
• to grease inserts, the piston, a conrod neck of a shaft and a sleeve of the cylinder with pure engine oil;
• to part joints of compression rings at an angle 180 ° to each other, and joints of disks of an oil scraper ring — also at an angle 180 ° to each other and on 90 ° in relation to joints of compression rings. At the same time to put the lock of a two-functional dilator in a three-element ring at an angle 45 ° to the lock of one of its ring disks;
- to put on safety brass tips bolts of rods, to squeeze rings snap or, using a conical ring, to insert the piston into the cylinder, as shown in fig. 4.65. Before installation of the piston it is necessary to be convinced once again that numbers which are beaten out on a rod and its cover correspond to serial number of the cylinder, to check correctness of position of the piston and a rod in the cylinder;
In the working sleeves of cylinders without their boring the set of piston rings consisting of the top and lower compression tinned or fosfatirovanny rings and a steel oil scraper ring with not chromeplated disks has to be established.
- to tighten a rod for the lower head to a conrod neck, to remove brass tips from bolts, to put on a rod cover. The cover of a rod should be put so that numbers which are beaten out on a cover and a rod were turned into one party. After a nazhivleniye of nuts to apply 2 — 3 drops (0,06 g) of Unigerm-9 sealant on a carving part of nuts and to evenly tighten nuts. The final inhaling of nuts needs to be made a dynamometer key the moment of 68 — 75 N · m (6,8 — 7,5 kgfs · м). In case of use of the working details from nuts and bolts need to be removed the remains of earlier applied sealant, to degrease them gasoline and to dry;
- in the same order to insert the piston of the fourth cylinder;
- to turn a bent shaft on 180 ° and to insert pistons of the second and third cylinders;
- to turn several times a bent shaft which has to rotate easily from small effort;
- to make subassembly of the camshaft in the following order:
• to put on an expansion ring and a persistent flange the forward end of the camshaft;
• to napressovat a gear wheel of the camshaft by means of adaptation and to fix it by a bolt with a washer. The inhaling moment — 55 — 60 N · m (5,5 — 6,0 kgfs · l);
• by means of the probe inserted between a persistent flange of the camshaft and a nave of a gear wheel to check an axial gap of the camshaft (fig. 4.66). The gap has to be within 0,1 — 0,2 mm;
• to clean a tube of lubricant of distributive gear wheels and to tighten it by means of a bolt and the buckle to the block;
- to insert the subassembled camshaft into a block opening, having oiled previously his basic necks engine. When gearing gear wheels with a tag "0" the hollow of teeths of a gear wheel of the camshaft has to have a tooth of a gear wheel of a bent shaft against risks (see fig. 4.9). The side gap in gearing has to be within 0,025 — 0,1 mm. At a bigger or smaller gap to pick up other couple of gear wheels;
- through openings in a gear wheel of the camshaft to attach two bolts with spring washers a persistent flange to the block;
- to establish on a neck of the forward end of a bent shaft a maslootrazhatel by the convex party to a gear wheel;
- to check suitability of the cuff pressed in a cover of distributive gear wheels to further work. If the cuff has worn-out working edges or poorly covers the nave of a pulley of a bent shaft inserted into a cuff to replace it new. The cuff press fitting in a cover is recommended to be made by means of a mandrel, as shown in fig. 4.67;
- to put on a cover of distributive gear wheels laying hairpins;
— to center a cover on the forward end of a bent shaft by means of a mandrel (fig. 4.68) and to wrap all nuts and bolts of fastening of a cover. If there is no aligning mandrel, then installation of a cover can be made on a nave of a pulley of a bent shaft. The nave should be napressovat on a bent shaft so that its end entered on depth of 5 mm a cover opening. After that to fix a cover by nuts, maintaining an identical gap on a circle between a nave and an opening of a cover. To make alignment of a gap easy blows of the wooden or rubber hammer to a cover. After that it is final to fix a cover;
- to remove the aligning mandrel and to napressovat a pulley nave with a pulley damper of a bent shaft (fig. 4.69);
- to insert a rubber stopper into a shponochny groove and to press a spline;
- to wrap a coupling bolt in a sock of a bent shaft, previously having put on it a gear washer. Turning a bent shaft for a coupling bolt, to check whether touches a pulley damper a cover of distributive gear wheels;
- to install the oil pump assembled with an oil receiver;
- to install the drive of the oil pump and the sensor of the distributor of ignition in the following order:
• turning a bent shaft, to combine the third tag on a damper disk with an edge index on a cover of distributive gear wheels (see.
Fig. 4.70. The provision of cams of the camshaft of the first cylinder at installation of the drive of the oil pump and sensor distributor of ignition: 1 — an inlet cam; 2 — a final cam
fig. 4.6). The camshaft cams putting valves of the first cylinder in action have to be sent at the same time by tops to the party, opposite to pushers (towards an oil case) and are symmetrized (fig. 4.70);
Fig. 4.71. Check of an axial gap between a gear wheel and the case of the drive of the oil pump and the sensor distributor of ignition
• to check an axial gap between the case of the drive and a gear wheel by means of the probe (fig. 4.71). The gap has to be within 0,15 — 0,40 mm;
• to put on laying hairpins of fastening of the drive;
Fig. 4.72. The provision of a groove on the plug of the roller of the drive of the oil pump and the sensor distributor of ignition: And — before installation of the drive on the block; In — after installation of the drive on the block
• to turn the drive roller in the situation shown in fig. 4.72 A and to put the drive in a block nest. At introduction of the drive to a nest it is necessary to turn slightly the roller of the oil pump that the end of the roller of the drive entered a pump shaft opening. The drive has to be inserted without considerable efforts. In correctly installed drive the cut in the plug of the roller has to be directed parallel to an axis of the engine and is displaced from the engine, as shown in fig. 4.72 B;
• to fix the drive;
- to check existence of a gap in gear wheels of the camshaft and the drive;
- to grease joints of the lower flange of the block of cylinders with a cover of distributive gear wheels and the holder of stuffing by Elastosil 137-83 glue-sealant or UN-25 paste;
- to establish laying of an oil case on the lower flange of the block of cylinders;
- to establish an oil case on hairpins and to fix it by nuts with washers, evenly tightening nuts;
- to establish and tighten bolts the lower part of a case of coupling;
- to clear combustion chambers and channels of a head of cylinders of a deposit and deposits, to wipe and blow compressed air;
- to grind in valves, using the pritirochny paste made of one part of the micropowder M-20 and two parts of I-20A oil.
Before grinding in it is necessary to check whether there is no plate buckling of the valve and a burn-out of the valve and a saddle. With these defects it is impossible to restore tightness of the valve one grinding in and it is necessary to proshlifovat at first a saddle, and to replace the damaged valve new. If the gap between the valve and the plug exceeds 0,25 mm, then tightness cannot be also restored. In this case the valve and the plug should be replaced new.
Valves (in spare parts) are issued the standard size, and the directing plugs — with the internal diameter reduced by 0,38 mm (for their expansion under the final size after a press fitting in a head of cylinders). Vypressovka is made by a worn-out guide of the plug by means of a mandrel (fig. 4.73). Saddles of valves are removed milling by a hard-alloy vertical drill.
Repair saddles have the outer diameter 0,25 mm bigger, than standard therefore nests for saddles are chiseled to the following sizes: for a saddle of the inlet valve — 49,25+0,025 mm, for final — 42,25+0,025 mm. Saddles of valves and the directing plugs before assembly should be cooled in carbon dioxide (artificial ice), and to heat a head of cylinders to temperature of 160 — 175 °C. Saddles and plugs at assembly have to be inserted into head nests freely or with easy effort.
The press fitting of new plugs of inlet and final valves is made to a vystupaniye over a head on 20 mm. After a press fitting to develop a plug opening to diameter of 9+0,022 mm, and to proshlifovat facets of saddles, aligning on an opening in the plug. When grinding it is necessary to provide concentricity of a facet on a valve saddle with an opening in the plug within 0,05 mm. Facets grind at an angle 45 °. Outer diameter (fig. 4.74) of a facet at a saddle for the inlet valve has to be 46,8 mm, and at final — 38,8 mm. The saddle of the inlet valve of 1,8 — 2,3 mm has to have width of a facet of "b", at final — 2,3 — 2,5 mm. Width of a facet is provided with a rasshlifovka of an opening of a saddle of the inlet valve at an angle 30 °, as shown in fig. 4.74 A, and the final valve — at an angle 15 ° (fig. 4.74 B). The facet has to be identical on all perimeter.
After grinding of saddles and grinding in of valves all gas channels carefully to clear and blow compressed air that there is no abrasive dust left;
- to cover cores of valves with a thin layer of the colloidal graphite divorced in the oil applied to the engine or to oil;
- on the directing plugs of valves to napressovat oil scraper caps, to insert valves into plugs according to the made tags and to bring together them with springs. To be convinced that crackers entered a ring flute of valves;
- to rub with graphite powder on both sides laying of a head of cylinders and to put on it hairpins. To establish a head and to fix it by nuts with washers. To tighten nuts a dynamometer key the moment of 83 — 90 N · m (8,3 — 9,0 kgfs · l), observing the order specified fig. 4.34;
- to clean a wire and to blow compressed air of an opening in yokes, in an axis of yokes and adjusting screws, in the fourth main rack of an axis of yokes and oil channels in a head of cylinders. To check reliability of landing of plugs of yokes. In case of weak landing in operating time the plug can be displaced and block an opening for valve pusher bar lubricant. Such plugs need to be replaced;
- to make subassembly of an axis of yokes. Before statement of each yoke to oil its plug engine;
- to insert pushers into nests according to tags on them. Previously to oil pushers and openings in the block engine;
- to insert bars assembled with tips into openings in a head of cylinders;
- to establish a subcollected axis of yokes on hairpins and to fix by nuts with washers. Adjusting bolts the spherical part have to lay down on the sphere of the top tip of a bar;
- to establish gaps between end faces of cores of valves and noses of yokes. A gap between yokes and the first and eighth valves — 0,35 — 0,40 mm, a gap between other yokes and valves — 0,40 — 0,45 mm. To make adjustment as it is specified in the subsection "Features of Maintenance of the Engine";
- to put laying and a cover of yokes and to fix them by bolts with washers, observing the order specified fig. 4.35;
- to grease and put on a forward cover of the transmission the coupling switching off coupling assembled with the bearing;
- to establish and fix the transmission;
- to establish a coupling switching off fork;
- to establish details and units of the engine called in the subsection "Dismantling of the Engine", observing the return sequence.
Dismantling, repair and assembly of separate knots and units of the engine
Pump of cooling liquid.
Dismantling of the pump needs to be carried out in the following order:
- to turn off bolts of fastening of a cover of the pump and to uncover;
- to remove a stripper a krylchatka (fig. 4.75);
- to remove a stripper a nave (fig. 4.76);
- to turn out a bearing clamp;
- to vypressovat from the case the bearing assembled with the roller (fig. 4.77);
- to vypressovat an epiploon from the case.
To carry out assembly of the pump in the following sequence:
- by means of a mandrel to establish an epiploon, without allowing a distortion, in a pump housing (fig. 4.78);
- to press the bearing with the roller assembled in the case so that the nest under a clamp coincided with an opening in a pump housing (fig. 4.79);
- to wrap a clamp of the bearing and to zakernit that there was no clamp samootvorachivaniye;
- to napressovat a pump pulley nave on the bearing roller, having sustained the size of (117,5±0,2) mm of (fig. 4.80);
- to napressovat a krylchatka on the bearing roller aflush with a pump housing. The krylchatka because of the case plane no more, than on 0,2 mm (fig. 4.81) has to act;
- to install laying on the case and to tighten bolts a cover.
At a napressovka of a nave and a krylchatka it is necessary to unload the case, a clamp and the bearing of the pump from efforts of a press fitting, i.e. the emphasis at a napressovka has to be on a roller end face.
Before assembly to clear and wash out pump details, to remove deposits from a krylchatka of the case and a cover. To check the size of axial movement of an external holder of the bearing concerning the roller which should not exceed 0,13 mm at load of 50 N (5 kgfs).
The bearing of the pump is filled with lubricant at manufacturer and at repair of the pump of lubricant does not demand.
To carry out dismantling of the pump in the following order:
- to turn off four bolts, to remove a reception branch pipe with a grid, laying of a branch pipe, a pump cover, laying of a cover;
- to take out from the case the conducted gear wheel and the roller with the leading gear wheel assembled. The leading gear wheel (as the spare part) arrives assembled with the roller that considerably facilitates repair of the pump;
- to take out a spring and a plunger of the reducing valve from a pump housing, previously having removed the forelock;
- to wash out details and to blow compressed air.
To carry out assembly of the pump in the following order:
- to insert into the case the roller assembled with the leading gear wheel and to check ease of its rotation;
— to put the conducted gear wheel in the case and to check ease of rotation of both gear wheels;
- to put on the case laying from a cardboard 0,3 mm thick. Application of a varnish, paint and other pressurizing substances at laying installation, and also installation of thicker laying is not allowed as it leads to pressure decrease, developed by the pump;
- to put a cover, paronitovy laying, a reception branch pipe with a grid and to tighten to the case bolts with spring washers. If on the plane of a cover there is a considerable development from gear wheels, then it is necessary to proshlifovat it before removal of traces of development;
- to insert a plunger and a spring of the reducing valve into an opening in the case and to fix by the forelock with a washer;
- to check pressure developed by the pump. Pressure is checked at a certain resistance at the exit. For this purpose on special installation the jet with a diameter of 1,5 mm and 5 mm long joins an output branch pipe of the pump. The pump with a reception branch pipe and a grid has to be in the tank which is filled in with the mix consisting of 90% of kerosene and 10% of M-8B or M-53/10G1 oil. Mix level in a tank has to be 20 — 30 mm lower than the plane of the socket of the case and a cover of the oil pump. The pump is given to rotation from an electric motor. With a frequency of rotation of a shaft of the pump 250 mines-1 pressure developed by the pump has to be not less than 100 kPa (1 kgf/cm2), and at 725 min.-1 — from 360 to 500 kPa (from 3,6 to 5 kgfs/cm2). With a smaller pressure of oil reduction of thickness of laying between the case and a cover is allowed. Drive of the oil pump and sensor distributor of ignition. The drive assembled and separately six-sided roller of the drive of the oil pump comes to spare parts. Therefore it is necessary to disassemble the drive only at wear of the six-sided roller or insignificant wear of the case (a gap between the case and a gear wheel — 0,5 — 1,0 mm). At wear of a gear wheel, the roller of the drive or considerable wear of the case to replace the drive.
To carry out dismantling of the drive in the following order:
- to vypressovat a drive gear wheel pin with the help a small beard and to remove the six-sided roller of the drive of the oil pump;
- to press a gear wheel. For this purpose to install the drive case by the top end face on a support with an opening, than easy access of the roller assembled with the persistent plug is provided. Effort of a vypressovka to apply to the end of the roller through a mandrel 012,5 mm (fig. 4.80).
To carry out assembly of the drive in the following order:
- to insert into the case the roller assembled with the plug, having oiled it engine;
- if necessary to put on a persistent washer the roller. Thickness of a washer has to be picked up so that after a gear wheel napressovka between a washer and a gear wheel there was a gap of 0,15 — 0,40 mm;
- to napressovat a gear wheel on the roller before coincidence of an opening under a pin in a gear wheel and the roller (fig. 4.81);
— to insert the roller of the drive of the oil pump into a six-sided opening;
- to press in an opening a pin with a diameter of 3,5-0,08 mm and 22 mm long, расклепав it on both sides;
- to check a hand rotation of the roller, a gap between the case and a gear wheel (between a persistent washer and a gear wheel) and radial movement of the free end of the six-sided roller of the drive of the oil pump. Radial movement has to be not less than 1 mm in any direction.
Repair of a power supply system
Fig. 4.23. Bulk mouth of the fuel tank: 1 — a hose of a bulk pipe; 2 — a collar; 3 — an arm; 4 — a stopper of a bulk pipe; 5 and 6 — laying; 7 — an arm of fastening of a tank to a frame
In case of violation of tightness of the fuel tank it should be removed from the car. For this purpose it is necessary to weaken nuts of fastening of a plate of a loop of the hatch of a bulk pipe and to take out an arm 3 (see fig. 4.23), to remove the body floor hatch (over the fuel tank) and to disconnect fuel hoses from a toplivozabornik, to remove the wires going to the sensor of the index of level of fuel and to isolate them, to disconnect coupling tapes (previously having put an emphasis under a tank) from arms and to remove a tank.
Before check of tightness it is necessary to remove the sensor of the index of level of fuel from the fuel tank and a toplivozabornik with the filter for what to unscrew five screws of fastening of their flanges to a tank; to remove a bulk pipe together with hoses (for motor vans and buses).
Tightness of the fuel tank is checked compressed air under pressure of 20 kPa (0,2 kgfs/cm2), placing it in water, previously having closed caps or traffic jams all flanges and openings. Air is brought through the special tube inserted into a bulk pipe and supplied with the gate for blocking of access of air at increase in pressure more than 20 kPa (0,2 kgfs/cm2) and the control manometer.
In places of leakage there will be vials of air. These places should be noted paint.
It is possible to solder a tank only after its careful washing (inside and outside) hot water and purges compressed air. After the soldering it is necessary to check tightness of a tank again.
Assembly and installation of the fuel tank are carried out as it should be, the return to dismantling and removal of a tank from the car. At assembly it is necessary to watch safety and correctness of installation of laying under flanges of an intaking tube and the sensor of the index of level. For prevention of infiltration of fuel through carving thinnesses screws of fastening of flanges before a zavertyvaniye are recommended to be dipped into minium or shellac. All connections of a tank in order to avoid depressurization after assembly and its installation on the car have to be tightened densely, however with little effort.
Faulty details of fuel-supply lines should be replaced new.
The fuel pump demands repair in the cases of break of a diaphragm, violation of tightness which are soaking up or final valves, loss of elasticity of a sealant of draft of a diaphragm, and also wear of the lever of the drive and a textolite washer of draft of a diaphragm.
To carry out dismantling of the fuel pump in the following order:
Fig. 4.26. Fuel pump: 1 — the lever of the manual drive; 2 — a sealant; 3 — the mesh filter of a control opening; 4 — the delivery valve; 5 — the screw of fastening of a cover of the filter; 6 — the mesh filter; 7 — the soaking-up valve; 8 — a diaphragm; 9 — the drive lever
- to unscrew two screws 5 (see fig. 4.26) fastenings of a cover and to uncover carefully, the rubber condensing laying and the mesh filter of the pump;
— to unscrew eight screws of fastening of a head of the pump to the case, to carefully remove a head and to release a diaphragm;
— in need of replacement of valves to vypressovat from a head of the pump of a holder of valves, to remove the rubber valve, a plate of the valve and a spring from a holder. It is not recommended without need to unscrew from a head and a cover of the pump of toplivopodvodyashchiya and taking away unions;
- to turn out carving caps of an axis of the lever from the case;
- to take out a lever axis, previously having removed a lever spring;
- to take out the lever of the drive of the pump and the plug of the lever;
- to take out a diaphragm together with draft, a spring, a sealant and the holder of a sealant from a pump housing;
- to take out the roller of the lever of the manual drive together with a sealing rubber ring, previously having released a lever spring;
- to sort a diaphragm for what to wring out a spring and, having removed the steel holder of a sealant, to remove it;
- to turn off a draft nut, to remove a spring washer, the top cup, diaphragm petals, the lower cup and the condensing washer.
Survey and control of details.
To carefully examine a condition of details, previously having cleared also their washout in kerosene or unleaded gasoline. In need of replacement of the valve especially to pay attention to a condition of a saddle in a head.
To replace the rubber valves, laying of a cover of a head or petals of a diaphragm having a buckling and loss of elasticity.
To consider total wear of a working surface of the lever, an opening of the lever, plug, an axis and pump housing, and also textolite washer of draft of a diaphragm admissible in limits which provide giving of the pump not less than 145 l/h with a frequency of rotation of the clown of 1800 min.-1.
Assembly of the pump.
Assembly of the pump is carried out as it should be, the return to dismantling. At the same time special attention should be paid on correctness of subassembly of a diaphragm and its installation in the pump.
Before assembly it is necessary to check the characteristic of a spring of the pump: free length of a spring — 50 mm; at load of 50+3 N (5,1+0,3 kgfs) length of a spring has to be 28,5 mm. Quantity of rounds of a spring — 6+0,5, the outer diameter of a spring — 24 mm, diameter of a wire — (1,8±0,03) mm, material — steel 65GA.
Subassembly of a diaphragm is recommended to be carried out in special adaptation (fig. 4.84). Before assembly to wash out all details in pure gasoline, to keep petals of a diaphragm 30 — 40 min. in kerosene and to wipe with a pure napkin on both sides. Then to insert draft into adaptation and to consistently put on the acting end of draft a rubber sealant of draft, a sealing copper washer, the lower cup (the concave party down), four petals of a diaphragm (so that pins of adaptation entered its opening), the top cup and to wrap a nut a hand on several strings of a carving, having put under it a spring washer. Then to clamp all details in adaptation and to tighten a nut to the full.
To take out a subcollected diaphragm from adaptation, to put on a spring draft and to release a rubber sealant from a spring. To wring out a spring and to establish on a rubber sealant the steel holder.
Fig. 4.85. Head of the fuel pump: 1 — a cover; 2 — a valve holder; 3 — a spring; 4 — laying; 5 — a valve plate; 6 — the valve
At a press fitting of holders of valves in a head of the pump it is necessary to provide the sizes between a plate of the valve and a holder at inlet valves of 1,5 — 1,8 mm, at delivery — 2,0 — 2,3 mm (fig. 4.85).
At assembly of completely subcollected diaphragm (with a sealant and a spring, with a head and the case) it is necessary to wrap at first slightly eight screws of fastening of a head to the case, and then, taking away the lever of the manual drive in extreme top situation, to completely tighten them. It will allow to prevent break of a diaphragm or its excessive extract at the beginning of operation of the pump.
The head and cover at assembly of the pump have to be put concerning the case in the position shown in fig. 4.86.
After assembly it is necessary to check the pump for the beginning of giving, pressure, depression and giving as it was stated above.
Dismantling of the carburetor is recommended to be carried out in the following order:
— to unscrew the screw of fastening of thirst of the air gate for the drive lever;
- to unscrew seven screws of fastening of a cover of the float-operated camera, to uncover also laying under it, trying not to damage laying;
- to unscrew two screws and to remove the air gate if gaps between the air gate and an air branch pipe exceed normal;
- to unscrew the screw and to remove a spray of the accelerating pump;
- to unscrew the screw and to remove a spray of an ekonostat;
- to turn off a stopper and to take out a float axis, to remove a float, to take out a needle of the fuel valve. To turn out the case of the fuel valve together with laying;
- to turn off a stopper of the filter and to remove the mesh filter;
- to unscrew four screws of fastening of a cover of a diaphragm of the accelerating pump, to uncover and take out a diaphragm with a spring;
- to turn out the main jets of the first and second cameras of the carburetor;
- to turn out air jets and to take out emulsion tubes of the first and second cameras;
— to turn out jets of system of idling of the first camera and jets of transitional system;
- to unscrew two screws and to remove the diaphragm locking device of the economizer of compulsory idling;
- to unscrew three screws and to remove the case of autonomous system.
Control and survey of details.
After dismantling it is necessary to wash out details in gasoline, to blow compressed air and to check their technical condition which has to meet the following requirements:
- all details have to be pure, without deposit and resinous deposits;
- jets after washing and a purge with compressed air have to have the set capacity or the size;
- all valves have to be tight, laying — whole and to have traces (prints) of the condensed planes;
- there should not be noticeable iznos (side plays) in connections: a float axis — an arm of a float, a lug of the case of mixing cameras — axes of butterfly valves.
Assembly of the carburetor is made as it should be, the return to dismantling. At first it is necessary to podsobrat all three parts of the carburetor — a cover, cases float-operated and mixing cameras, and then to connect them among themselves. At assembly it is necessary:
- to watch safety and the correct installation of laying;
- to watch that throttle and air gates turned absolutely freely, without jammings and densely covered the channels;
- to tighten all threaded connections densely, but without excessive efforts;
- to check and if necessary to adjust fuel level in the float-operated camera.