10.3.3. Starter

Launch of the engine is carried out by means of a starter 42.3708-10 with the electromagnetic traction relay. The starter is established on the right side of the engine on a coupling case.
Starter — the quadripolar electric motor of a direct current with electromagnetic excitement. Food of a starter is carried out from the rechargeable battery.

Fig. 9.70. Starter 42.3708-10: 1 — a cover from the drive; 2 — the lever; 3 — a lever axis; 4 — the core of the traction relay; 5 — a rod of the traction relay; 6 — a spring returnable; 7 — the relay traction; 8 and 10 — plugs insulator; 9 — a plate contact; 11 and 17 — washers locking; 12 — a ring sealing; 13 — a bolt compact; 14 — a cover of the traction relay, 15 — a hairpin coupling; 16 — a cap protective; 18 — a cover from a collector; 19 — a brush; 20 — the holder of brushes; 21 — a brush spring; 22 — the brush holder; 23 — the case; 24 — an excitement winding; 25 — the collector; 26 — an anchor; 27 — a support intermediate; 28 — the drive with the roller coupling of a free wheeling; 29 — a gear wheel; 30 — a ring spring; 31 — the plug persistent




Fig. 9.71. Electric circuit of a starter: 1 — a starter; 2 — the starter switch; 3 — the winding holding; 4 — the winding which is involved; 5 — the drive; 6 — an excitement winding; 7 — an anchor; 8 — a brush





The device of a starter is shown in fig. 9.70, and the electric circuit in fig. 9.71.
At turn of a key of the switch of ignition the provision of start-up joins an electric chain of the additional relay of 711.3747-02 type through which contacts food comes from the rechargeable battery to the traction relay. The anchor of the traction relay under the influence of the electromagnetic field of two windings of the relay is involved and by means of the lever enters a gear wheel into gearing and at the end of the course includes an electric chain of a starter, having at the same time disconnected the involving relay winding.
After launch of the engine it is necessary to release an ignition switch key immediately. At the same time the chain of the additional relay will be opened and the traction relay and a starter will be switched off under the influence of a returnable spring.
Technical characteristics of a starter
Rated voltage, In..... 12
Number of teeths of gear wheels of the drive of a starter..... 9
Gear wheel module..... 2,11
Rated power (with the battery with a capacity of 55A h), kW..... 1,7
The idling mode at a voltage of 12B:
force of the consumed current no more, And..... 75
frequency of rotation, min.-1..... 5000
The mode of full braking at a starter power supply from the battery of 12 V and with a capacity of 55 And:
force of the consumed current, no more, And..... 520
torque, not less, than a kgf · m..... 1,6
Tension of inclusion of the main contacts of the traction relay when laying between a gear wheel and a persistent ring of 11 mm, no more, In..... 8
Force of a tension of springs of brushes, N..... 10 — 14
Maintenance of a starter
At the next seasonal service of the car after the run of 100 000 km it is necessary to remove a starter from the engine, to perform its dismantling and inspection (see. "Repair of a starter").
The starter consumes big current therefore even insignificant transitional resistance in its chain can reduce starter power.
To check serviceability of the wires connecting the rechargeable battery to a starter and the block of the engine.
Repair of a starter
The starter which is subject to repair needs to be removed and sorted.
For removal of a starter:
- to switch-off the rechargeable battery;
- to disconnect wires from the traction relay of a starter;
- to turn off bolts of fastening of a starter to a case of coupling and to remove it (lowering down).
Details of a starter need to be cleared carefully of dirt and it is obligatory to check. The damaged and worn-out details have to be replaced by new.
For dismantling of a starter:
- to unscrew two screws and to take off a protective cap 16 (see fig. 9.70);
- to remove a locking washer 17 and a persistent washer;
- to turn off two nuts of coupling hairpins 15;
- to uncover 18 from a collector;
- to take out brushes 19 of brush holders. To number brushes and brush holders that at assembly they were established on the places;
- to remove the holder of brushes 20;
- to remove the traction relay 7;
- to remove the case 23 starters;
- to remove an axis 3 levers of the drive. Previously to notice the provision of an axis concerning a cover;
- to take out an anchor 23 together with the drive 28 and to remove from an anchor shaft pin adjusting washers from the drive;
- to shift the persistent plug 31 on an anchor shaft towards a gear wheel;
- to remove a spring ring 30 under the persistent plug then to remove the persistent plug, the drive 28 and an intermediate support 27;
- if necessary to unscrew screws of fastening of poles and to remove excitement windings.
Control of details of a starter
Case

Fig. 9.60. The scheme of a control lamp with the rechargeable battery: 1 — the rechargeable battery; 2 — the 1 — 5 W control lamp; 3 — the probe




Fig. 9.72. Check of coils of excitement of a starter on short circuit with the case




By means of a control lamp (fig. 9.60) or the E236 device to check lack of short circuit of coils of excitement for the case (see fig. 9.72). For this purpose it is necessary to connect a control lamp to the case and a conclusion located on the case. If the lamp burns, then isolation of coils of excitement is damaged.
In this case it is necessary to number poles of coils, to unscrew screws of fastening of poles and to remove excitement windings. To repair the damaged places of isolation an insulating tape. After this pole and the coil to put into place. To zakernit screws of poles.
Holder of brushes


Fig. 9.73. Check of the isolated starter brush holders on short circuit with the case




Control lamp (fig. 9.60) or the E236 device to check lack of short circuit of the isolated brush holders for the case (see fig. 9.73). In case of short circuit it is necessary to replace insulating laying of rivets of the brush holder. Rocking by the brush holder is not allowed. Brushes in brush holders have to move freely, without jammings. To replace the brushes which are worn out up to the height of 6 — 7 mm.
For check of brush springs it is necessary to establish the holder of brushes on the collector of an anchor. To establish brushes into place and to check a dynamometer effort of springs. The effort has to be 1000 — 1400 гс at the time of a spring separation from a brush. The ends of brush springs have to press the middle of a brush.
Cover from the drive
To check a condition of the plug (bearing). In case of need in a cover to install the new plug which diameter of an opening after a press fitting and expansion has to be 12,5+0,035 mm with a roughness of processing of Ra = 2,5.
Cover from a collector
To check the plug of a cover and in case of wear to replace. Diameter of an opening of the new plug after a press fitting and development has to be 12,5+0,035 mm with a roughness of processing of Ra = 2,5.
Intermediate support
To check the plug and in case of wear to replace. Diameter of an opening of the plug after a press fitting and expansion has to be 19,2+0,1 mm with a roughness of processing of Ra = 2,5.
Anchor

Fig. 9.74. Check of a winding of an anchor on lack of short circuit with a magnetic conductor




Control lamp (see fig. 9.60) or the E236 device to check for lack of short circuit of a winding of an anchor on a magnetic conductor of an anchor (fig. 9.74). For this purpose it is necessary to connect one end to any of collector lamels, and another to an anchor magnetic conductor. The lamp should not burn. To attentively examine an anchor. A front part of a winding of an anchor has to be on diameter less package of iron. The increased diameter of a front part of a winding indicates its "rating". Such anchor is subject to replacement. The ends of wires of windings have to be reliably soldered to a collector. The anchor should be checked on the E236 device for lack of vitkovy short circuits. In case of short circuit detection to replace an anchor.
The collector of an anchor has to be pure. In case of a considerable roughness of a collector or a vystupaniye of isolation it should be pierced on the lathe. After a pro-point of the collector it is necessary to grind a skin granularity 100 to Ra roughness = 1,25.
The collector beating concerning a pin of a shaft should not exceed 0,05 mm. The anchor iron package beating concerning pins of a shaft should not exceed 0,25 mm. At the same time it is necessary to check lack of a deflection of a shaft as the deflection can be the reason of jamming of the drive on a shlitsevy part of a shaft. If on an anchor shaft, in that place where the starter gear wheel rotates, there is a yellow raid from the bearing, then it should be removed with a small skin. Existence of a yellow raid often leads to jamming of a gear wheel on a shaft after launch of the engine and to anchor winding "rating".
Starter drive
The drive of a starter is examined outside and checked for lack of pro-slipping. The drive has to freely, without jammings to move by a shlitsevy part of a shaft. At strong wear of plugs (bearings) of the drive they need to be replaced. Diameter of an opening of new plugs after a press fitting and development has to be within 14+0,06 mm with Ra surface roughness = 1,25.
At deduction of an anchor the gear wheel has to rotate freely clockwise. Counterclockwise the gear wheel has to rotate only together with an anchor. Check of the coupling of a free wheeling on pro-slipping is made at test of a starter for full braking at loading 1,6 kgfs · by m.
Traction relay
Serviceability of the involving and holding windings needs to be checked by means of an ohmmeter or to measure resistance by means of the voltmeter and the ampermeter. Resistance of the involving winding has to be 0,27+0,01 Ohms, and holding 1,04 Ohms; in case of malfunction of windings the traction relay should be replaced. Klemmovy bolts of the switch of a starter should be smoothed out, and at their strong burning out to turn on 180 ° round its pivot-center. At strong wear of a contact plate it should be turned not worn-out party to contacts.
The core of the traction relay in the case has to move freely.
After check and replacement of all worn-out or damaged details the starter can be collected.
Assembly of a starter
Assembly of a starter is made as it should be, the return to dismantling. At the same time it is necessary:
- before assembly to grease bearings of a pin and a shlitsevy part of a shaft with oil for the engine;

Fig. 9.75. Device for clothing of a spring ring: 1 — an anchor shaft; 2 — the plug a guide, 3 — a ring spring; 4 — a pusher




- if the spring ring 30 (see fig. 9.70) anchors has deformation, to replace it new or to correct; for clothing of a ring use adaptation shown in fig. 9.75;
- the persistent plug 31 with a pro-point is put on an anchor shaft from the drive by a pro-point towards the cover bearing;
- on a shaft from a collector the steel washer is established;
- at a final inhaling of coupling hairpins it is necessary to combine pins and grooves on covers and the case;
- to check the size of an axial side play of an anchor which has to be about 0,8 mm.
After assembly to check work of a starter at the stand. At inclusion of a starter the drive has to move on a shlitsevy part of a shaft without jammings and come back to a starting position under the influence of a returnable spring. At turn of a gear wheel by hand clockwise the anchor should not start. At the return rotation the gear wheel has to rotate together with shaft.
Adjustment of a starter

Fig. 9.76. Measurement of provision of a gear wheel of the drive in the switched-off state




If necessary to make check and adjustment of a starter. The external end face of a gear wheel has to be in the switched-off situation at distance no more than 21,5 mm from the privalochny plane of a flange of a starter (see fig. 9.76 the size A).

Fig. 9.78. Measurement of a gap from a gear wheel end face to the persistent plug at the switched-on traction relay





Rice. 9.77. The scheme of inclusion of a starter for adjustment check




To check a full departure of a gear wheel at the switched-on traction relay. For this purpose to turn on the traction relay according to the scheme shown in fig. 9.77. At the same time the distance between an end face of a gear wheel and the persistent plug has to be 4+1 mm (see fig. 9.78). This gap is regulated by turn of an eccentric axis 3 levers of the drive (see fig. 9.70). After adjustment to tighten an axis nut.
Control check of a starter
Serviceability of a starter, correctness of its assembly and adjustment determine by check of a starter idling and check of a starter at full braking.
Are necessary for check of a starter: a low-voltage source (or well charged rechargeable battery); the voltmeter of a direct current with a scale from 0 to 30 V; the ampermeter of a direct current with the shunt to 500 A; a tachometer with a scale to 10 000 min.-1.

Fig. 9.79. The electric circuit of inclusion of a starter when checking idling: 1 — a starter, 2 — the traction relay, 3 — the switch, 4 — the ampermeter, 5 — the voltmeter, 6 — the rechargeable battery




The scheme of inclusion of a starter at test is idling shown in fig. 9.79. Current and frequency of rotation of a shaft of an anchor at test idling are measured through 30 from later inclusion of a starter.
The starter is considered passed test idling if at a voltage of 12 V it consumes current no more than 75 And yes not less than 5000 mm-1 develop rotation frequency.
At the hard rotation of a shaft of an anchor caused usually by distortions as a result of the wrong assembly of a starter or a zadevaniye of an anchor for poles and also at short circuit between rounds, the starter consumes current of bigger force with a rotation frequency less than specified. The small force of the consumed current and the lowered frequency of rotation of a shaft of an anchor at a normal tension on clips of a starter demonstrate bad contact in connections of wires in a starter or about the lowered tension of springs of brushes.
An inspection of a starter at full braking needs to be carried out at the E242 stand.
The serviceable starter at a power supply from completely charged rechargeable battery consumes current no more than 520 And at a voltage not less than 8 V and develops the moment about 1,6 kgfs · mm. If the consumed current higher than 520 And, and the brake moment is lower than 1,6 kgfs · m, it indicates malfunction of a winding of an anchor or winding of excitement. If the size of the brake moment and force of the consumed current is lower normal, it at a normal tension on clips of a starter indicates bad contacts in a starter or a weak tension of springs of brushes. The lowered tension on starter clips (less than 8 V) indicates bad contacts in wires or on malfunction of the battery. At gear wheel loading the brake moment, the coupling of a free wheeling should not revolve